To understand this question you need to understand what agriculture is and why does it play such an important role in Pakistan. To make it simple; Agriculture is the science and art of cultivating plants and livestock. In other words, it is the planting and growing of products that play a major role in enhancing the human life and economy of Pakistan.
Agriculture contributes largely to Pakistan’s economy and is accounted for 26% of the total gross domestic product (GDP). Three-quarters of the country’s population is supported by agriculture and half of the labor force relies on employment from this industry. As the rate of unemployment begins to decrease and the, per capita income starts to rise, the living standards further commence which results in better basic facilities such as health, hygiene, and education. Furthermore, it provides a large share of foreign exchange earnings by exporting some of the main crops and livestock as raw materials. The foreign exchange is then used up for improving the remaining sectors of the economy. Hence it can be said that it’s a great patron to progressing the marketplace.
The essential and main crop products of agriculture include Cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, etc
Pakistan is one of the four dominant countries of cultivating two-third of the world’s cotton, which is an exceeding contributor to the textile industry in Pakistan and all over the world. It is grown during the monsoon months and plays an important role in export accounting for 55% of countries export earnings.
Wheat is the most valuable grain and a staple food for more than one-third of the world population. Amongst the wheat-producing country, Pakistan holds 10th position in terms of area and yield. For some years Pakistan has been a merchant for wheat while at times it has been an exporter.
Pakistan is the world’s 10th largest producer of rice. It is of significance to the national economy and an important cash crop. Rice is grown on lands of Sindh and Punjab where many farmers rely on the cultivation of rice as their major source of employment. Basmati is the most famous variety of rice grown in Pakistan known for its flavor and quality.
The average production of sugar cane in Pakistan is 450 – 500 maunds per acre which is very much low compared to the cane production by other countries. Pakistan occupies an important position in cane producing countries of the world. It ranks at the fifth position in cane acreage production and almost 15th position in sugar production.
In conclusion, all of these crops play an important withholding the economy and increasing the value of exports of Pakistan.
Looking at crops, it’s not an easy job growing these crops without help which is why farmers make use of heavy machinery. Mechanized agriculture is a process that makes use of modern machinery to automate agriculture work, increasing the productivity of farmworkers. Nowadays a lot of machinery has replaced many farmers’ jobs previously carried out by manual labor. Improving production efficiency, mechanization encourages the large scale of production and sometimes can improve the quality of farm produce.
The Punjab agriculture department is contributing a 50% subsidy on the installation of the solar system, for sprinkle and drip irrigation, in order to coincide with the water shortage and advance the productivity of agriculture in Pakistan.
According to the assistant director of the agriculture department, Naveed Asmat Kohloon, sprinkle and drip irrigation system is being introduced at 20,000 acres in the Punjab province. The government has assigned Rs 3.68 billion for the project. Sprinkle and Drip Irrigation system is of vital importance. It will not only save water for irrigation but also enhance agriculture productivity. Naveed stated that the solar system will additionally improve the reducing expense on fuel. Furthermore, it is said to be environmentally friendly. He urged farmers to contact the Irrigation Department and avail exclusive form for extending applications for subsidy
How to Improve the Agriculture Sector to get maximum efficiency:
Over the past few years, the Pakistani landscape has been damaged by a range of destructive climate forces varying from desertification to over-flooding. As a result of these factors, Pakistan’s overall economy has suffered. In order to know how to improve agriculture, we first need to counter the problems.
What are the problems?
The various problems agriculture currently is facing are financial, natural and techno-economic.
The total area of Pakistan is about 79.6 million hectares put of which 0nly 23.7 million hectares are being used for the purpose of agriculture. Approx 8 mill is unutilized. There’s a broad class of landholdings that makes it tough for farmers to use modern machinery in a small scale area. Additionally, The deposit of sand due to the rise in water tables has greatly affected the land making it unsuitable for cultivation. About 0.10 million hectares of land have been damaged and the cause is waterlogging and salinity which further reduces the productivity of crops. Plant Diseases damage the agricultural crops like cotton, sugarcane; wheat, etc are attacked by pests and insects resulting in low productivity. Furthermore, financial problems that occur are a shortage of Agriculture finance and low credit. Agriculture credit facilities are lacking in Pakistan’s rate of interest in agriculture is high and loans aren’t being provided on time.
Countering these problems, what can be done?
To control waterlogging and salinity, tube wells and alternative method of irrigation can be installed to avoid the rise in water tables. The ministry of agriculture, however, has proposed large investments with the objective of covering around 2, 00,000 hectares of land with good irrigation systems.
Farm mechanization can be helpful in increasing the productivity of the crops in order to increase the export value. By modern harvesting and cultivation method quality and quantity of crops can rise.